The security of the world’s airports, power plants, military complexes, but also data centers and elements of critical infrastructure is rapidly decreasing with the onset of the fourth industrial revolution and drones as part of it. The number of incidents where drones have threatened the safety of property and people is increasing.
The availability of commercial UAVs in all corners of the world is increasing exponentially. Drones are no longer exclusively military equipment, but consumer goods that can be bought without much effort and money on the Internet. With 20% year-on-year growth, it is one of the fastest growing markets today. Legal systems do not have time to flexibly adapt to the pace of progress in this area. Regulation is absent, or lags behind, and today anyone can get a drone, regardless of experience or the purpose of its use. Thanks to their practical and constantly improving properties, drones find application in several sectors of the service sector and military conflicts.
But like any new technology, drones can be misused. The security of the world’s airports, power plants, military complexes, but also data centers and elements of critical infrastructure is rapidly decreasing with the onset of the fourth industrial revolution and drones as part of it. The number of incidents where drones have threatened the safety of property and people is increasing. It’s only a matter of time before user carelessness or criminal sophistication causes more serious damage. Effective protection against UAV intruders consists of multiple layers of diverse technologies. In principle, the equation applies: the more layers, the more reliable the protection. Drones are detected by radio frequency scanners, radars, cameras and acoustic sensors. The neutralization of unmanned vehicles is made possible by the deployment of signal jammers, net throwers, tools for taking over control of drones, GNSS spoofers and laser weapons.
The radio frequency scanner constantly analyzes wide frequency bands, classifies and decodes signals and thus provides early warnings, often before the drone even takes off.
A more compact version of the traditional radar developed specifically for UAV detection. The micro-Doppler function provides confirmation that the object is equipped with rotating propellers and at the same time allows the detection of hovering drones. This classification ensures that they are correctly distinguished from other moving objects, thus reducing the false alarm rate.
The complementary use of camera systems and their integration into the solution complements radio detection and provides live video recording in the event of a threat. Using artificial intelligence and neural networks, the software processes live video and instantly distinguishes drones from other moving objects.
Acoustic sensors are able to detect drones based on the sound tracks of their propellers, even if they are invisible to radar or lack radio frequency communication. By reducing and filtering unwanted noise from the area of interest, acoustic sensors achieve better range and clearer sound compared to conventional systems.
Jammers will make it impossible for the drone to receive a signal. A drone isolated from the transmitter and satellite signal will either stop in place or return to the take-off point, depending on its safety protocols. Against drones, it is possible to use either omnidirectional jammers, which interrupt the communication of all nearby devices using target frequencies, or directional jammers, which disrupt the connection of devices only in the direction of aiming. Both types of jammers can be customized – set which frequencies are to be interrupted and which, on the contrary, are to remain usable.
Although the use of jammers will interrupt the communication between the pilot and his drone and thus make it impossible to control the unmanned aircraft, its landing is a matter of configuring the internal parameters of the device and the software from the manufacturer. Thus, the drone can either immediately begin to descend to the ground, return to the take-off point, or remain floating uncontrollably in the air until the moment when its battery runs out. The minimization of this risk and the controlled contact of the UAV with the ground are ensured by net throwers.
A solution capable of detecting, identifying, locating and taking control of unmanned vehicles. The detection capability of this all-in-one solution works on the principle of passively scanning the surrounding frequencies and decoding the communication protocols between the controllers and the drones themselves. Breaking these communication protocols and sending a short signal on targeted frequencies will make it impossible for the operator to continue controlling the UAV, without disturbing friendly devices in the area. The system allows you to force the UAV to land at a pre-defined location along a pre-defined path, send the UAV back to the take-off location, land immediately or remain hovering in the air.
A method of manipulating GNSS by sending fake signals that the UAV recognizes as legitimate, immediately effective against any UAVs using GNSS, the downside is compromising GNSS in the area.
High-energy laser systems represent the most technologically sophisticated way of completely neutralizing an intruder UAV in a hard kill style. In the first step, multispectral sensors detect a potential threat. After the operator evaluates the situation and confirms that it is an enemy drone, a concentrated beam of energy shoots down the unmanned vehicle.
Integration – the interconnection of suitable technologies creates a complex system of protection against unmanned vehicles tailored to specific requirements.
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